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Man 02 Life cycle cost and service life planning

Number of credits available Minimum standards
4 No


To deliver whole life value by encouraging the use of life cycle costing to improve design, specification, through-life maintenance and operation , and through the dissemination of capital cost reporting promote economic sustainability.

Assessment criteria

This issue is split into three parts:

The following is required to demonstrate compliance:

Two credits - Elemental life cycle cost (LCC)

  1. An outline, entire asset elemental life cycle cost (LCC) plan has been carried out at Process Stage 2 (equivalent to Concept Design - RIBA Stage 2) in line with 'Standardised method of life cycle costing for construction procurement' PD 156865:20081PD 156865:2008 Standardized method of life cycle costing for construction procurement: a supplement to BS ISO 15686-5:2008. Buildings and constructed assets. Service life planning - Part 5: Life cycle costing..
  2. The elemental LCC plan:
    1. Provides an indication of future replacement costs over a period of analysis as required by the client (e.g. 20, 30, 50 or 60 years);
    2. Includes service life, maintenance and operation cost estimates.
  3. Demonstrate, using appropriate examples provided by the design team, how the elemental LCC plan has been used to influence building and systems design/specification to minimise life cycle costs and maximise critical value.

One credit - Component level LCC option appraisal

  1. A component level LCC option appraisal has been developed by the end of Process Stage 4 (equivalent to Technical Design – RIBA Stage 4) in line with PD 156865:2008 and includes the following component types (where present):
    1. Envelope, e.g. cladding, windows, and/or roofing
    2. Services, e.g. heat source cooling source, and/or controls
    3. Finishes, e.g. walls, floors and/or ceilings
    4. External spaces, e.g. alternative hard landscaping, boundary protection.
  2. Demonstrate, using appropriate examples provided by the design team, how the component level LCC cycle appraisal has been used to influence building and systems design/specification to minimise life cycle costs and maximise critical value.

One credit - Capital cost reporting

  1. Report the capital cost for the building in pounds per square metre (£k/m²), via the BREEAM Assessment Scoring and Reporting tool, Assessment Issue Scoring tab, Management section.

Checklists and tables


Compliance notes




Shell and core


Applicable assessment criteria

Elemental life cycle cost, capital cost reporting and maintenance strategy, criteria 1 to 3 and 6

Both options: All assessment criteria relevant to the building type and function apply.

Component level LCC plan, criteria 4 to 5

Both options: The plan must include all component types to be installed by the developer.

Refer to Appendix D – BREEAM UK New Construction and Shell and Core Project Assessments for a more detailed description of the above shell and core assessment options.

Simple buildings


Applicable assessment criteria

Capital cost reporting (1 credit)

  1. Criterion 6.


Appropriate examples

See criteria 3 and 5 .

The option(s) selected to demonstrate how life cycle costs have been minimised and critical value maximised must be appropriate in terms of its relative impact on project costs, future building maintenance burden and size (volume or area) and the stage of the project.

At stage 2, when considering the outputs from the elemental LCC plan, examples could be in the form of elemental appraisal(s) (where appropriate), evolutions in concept design to reduce maintenance or replacement costs and / or contracts for further elemental analysis.

At stage 4, when considering the outputs from the component level option analysis, examples are likely to be in the form of component specifications coupled with justifications for their selection (i.e. how they reduce life cycle costs / maximise critical value).


Pre-defined specifications

Where the building is constructed to a pre-defined standard specification, the LCC elemental plan for this specification may be used to help demonstrate compliance.


Capital cost reporting

At the design stage of assessment, where the final information is not available, the credit can be awarded where the client provides the predicted capital cost, including contingencies, and commits to providing this information for the final stage of assessment. At the final stage, if the final capital cost is not known, the client's/cost consultant's best estimate should be provided.

This data will be used to inform future BREEAM performance benchmarking and will be anonymised.


Independent assessment of parts

All three parts can be awarded independently from one another. For example, the project team can still target the one credit for the component level LCC option appraisal at stage 4 even if they have not been awarded the first two credits at stage 2 for developing an elemental life cycle cost plan. The capital cost reporting credit can also be awarded independently from the other two parts.


Component level LCC option appraisal – assessing types 4a-4d

The Component level LCC option appraisal should review all of the component types listed; 4a to 4d (where present). However not every single example cited under each component need be considered; only a selection of those most likely to draw valued comparisons. This is to ensure that a wide range of options are considered and help focus the analysis on components which would benefit the most from appraisal.


Elemental LCC plan study period

The study period should ideally be agreed by the client, in line with the design life expectancy of the building. However, where the life expectancy of the building has not yet been formally agreed (due to the early stages of the design process), the default design life of 60 years should be used for modelling purposes (in line with the UK default).

Building type specific


Law courts buildings – responsibility for complianceWhen considering this issue, the term 'project team' includes the Ministry of Justice. Responsibility for complying with the criteria of this issue may rest with any or all of the project team members and it is likely that this will vary depending on the procurement route used for the project.




Criteria Interim design stage
Final post construction stage

One or more of the appropriate evidence types listed in The BREEAM evidential requirements section can be used to demonstrate compliance with these criteria.

1, 2 and 3Elemental life cycle cost plan.As per interim design stage.
4, 5Component level life cycle cost plan.As per interim design stage.
6Predicted capital costs via the BREEAM scoring and reporting tool.Capital costs via the BREEAM scoring and reporting tool.

Additional information

Relevant definitions

Life cycle cost (LCC)
The cost of an asset, or its parts throughout its life cycle, while fulfilling the performance requirements; a methodology for systematic economic evaluation of life cycle costs over a period of analysis, as defined in the agreed scope.
Elemental LCC plan
This is commonly used for developing solutions at project level during option appraisals. Costs are normally at building elemental level on the entire asset. Information may be a mix of typical benchmark costs for key elements, comparative cost modelling or approximate estimates. It is expressed as cost per square metre of gross internal floor area (GIFA) and presented for elemental analysis, aligned to the level of capital cost plans.
Component level LCC option appraisal
A component level LCC plan is commonly used for cost planning specification choices of systems or component levels during design development. Component level LCC appraisal for service life planning requires the environment of the building and other local conditions to be identified, and the fundamental requirements to be met in planning the service life of the building. Decisions should be made on:
Predicted capital cost
The capital cost for the building includes the expenses related to the initial construction of the building: Costs relating to land procurement, clearance, design, statutory approvals and post occupancy aftercare should not be included.

Other information

Capital cost reporting
The lack of data relating to capital and life cycle costs/benefits arising from more sustainable building design presents a major barrier to take-up of more sustainable solutions. This issue seeks to encourage the sharing of data to break down these barriers and ensure that BREEAM continues to encourage cost effective and financially beneficial solutions. This information is collected to assist research into the cost and savings of developing sustainable/BREEAM-assessed buildings, to inform the business case for sustainability and the ongoing development of BREEAM. All data submitted will be treated as confidential and will only be used anonymously.
When to undertake life cycle costing
Life cycle costing is relevant throughout the building or constructed asset’s life cycle, in particular during the project planning, design and construction and also during the in-use phases. (For further information please refer to guide PD156865:2008. A supplement to BS ISO 15686-5.)
Standardised method for life cycle costing (SMLCC) for construction
The guide PD 156865:2008 describes the Standardised method for life cycle costing (SMLCC) for construction procurement. The objectives of this guide are to provide:
  1. A UK standard cost data structure for life cycle costing, which aligns with BS ISO 15686-5 and with the Building Cost Information Service (BCIS) Standard Form of Capital Cost Analysis (SFCA) and industry recognised occupancy cost codes. (Refer to Annexes A, B and C) (
  2. Life cycle costing practitioners with a standardised method of applying life cycle costing, applicable to the UK construction industry and to the key stages of the procurement process.
  3. Process mapping the life cycle costing stages – to help structure how to plan, generate, and interpret and present the results for a variety of different purposes and levels of life cycle cost planning.
  4. Instructions on how to define the client’s specific requirements for life cycle costing and the required outputs and forms of reporting – and to decide on which method of economic evaluation to apply.
  5. Simplification and demystification – by providing practical guidance, instructions and definitions, together with informative worked examples on how to undertake life cycle costing (for construction).
  6. An industry accepted methodology, to facilitate a more accurate, consistent and robust application of life cycle costing estimation and option appraisals, thereby creating a more effective and robust basis for life cycle cost analysis and benchmarking.
    The guide, PD156865:2008, also seeks to help eliminate confusion over scoping and terminology and to address concerns over the uncertainty and risks that are undermining confidence in life cycle costs used for construction procurement. (For further information, please refer to PD 156865 Supplement to BS ISO: 15686-5.)

BREEAM UK New Construction non-domestic buildings technical manual 2014
Reference: SD5076 – Issue: 5.0
Date: 23/08/2016
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